Thursday, August 27, 2020

Background Essay -- essays papers

Foundation Data Warfare is characterized as, â€Å" the hostile and cautious utilization of data and data frameworks to deny, misuse, degenerate, or crush, an adversary’s data, data based procedures, data frameworks, and PC based systems while securing one’s own. Such activities are intended to accomplish points of interest over military or business adversaries† (Goldberg). Digital Terrorism is characterized as, â€Å"the unlawful utilization of power or brutality against people or property to scare or force a legislature, the non military personnel populace, or any portion thereof, in advancement of political or social goals in the overall system of PC as well as PC organizes that utilization the TCP/IP arrange conventions to encourage information transmission and exchange† (Doyle). The two definitions are not formal and are not the specific meanings of either two terms. The explanation behind this is there is no accurate definition that comprises data fighting or d igital psychological warfare. From these definitions above, we can infer that a digital fear based oppressor will utilize data fighting procedures to arrive at his objective. For instance, if the United States comprehends the framework that works the scud rockets of Iraq, at that point through Information Warfare (hacking/breaking) they could make the scud rockets futile. This secures the Untied States pilots on assaults of concoction or natural weapons of mass annihilation by diminishing the odds of the pilots really being destroyed. Data Warfare has been around since the making of the NSA. The primary machine that deciphered code was made by United States researchers and was calls the Fish. Nonetheless, the best progression in our innovation came when the United States took the Enigma machine fr... ...Psychological oppression Introduction. <> [2002, October 16]. Deutch, J. (25, June 1996). Remote Information Warfare Programs and Capabilities. <> [2002, Sept12]. Ensor, D. Garrett, M. Smith M., and Williams, D. (February 20, 2001). FBI surveys 'grave' harm from most recent covert operative embarrassment. <> [2002, October 16]. Goldberg, I. (December 2, 2000). Glossary of Information Warfare Terms. <> [2002, October 16]. Johnson, D. (2001). PC Ethics. Prentice Hall, NJ. (November 2001) Cyber Protests Related to the War on Terrorism : The Current Threat. < > [2002 September 12].

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Daisy Miller Essays - Daisy Miller, Winterbourne,

Daisy Miller Upon Winterbourne's arrival to Vevey, Switzerland, he had been laying on a recreation center seat, talking with an inquisitive young man when an ?excellent youngster,? Daisy Miller, drew nearer. After a concise chatter, the two masterminded a day's excursion to the Castle of Chillon and throughout the following scarcely any months anticipated gathering again in Italy. All through the story, Winterbourne attempts to descry Miss Miller's character and simultaneously question her notoriety for being a coquettish American young lady in the late nineteenth century. Henry James' renowned novelette, Daisy Miller, is an immortal story portraying what results from the insubordination of social traditions, overlooking counsel relating to one's notoriety, lastly standing up to the real world. From her first t?te-?- t?te with Winterbourne and until her last, Miss Miller opposes every single social custom appropriate in European culture. During Winterbourne's first prologue to Miss Miller, incredibly, she acknowledges his amazingly strong choice to make a trip to the Castle without knowing whether he was a good man. Later that equivalent night they met again in the nursery. She approached Winterbourne to take her out for a pontoon ride, however subsequent to picking up authorization from her mom, she concluded she would prefer not go if nobody would set up a whine about her accomplishing something so nonsensical. Winterbourne was disregarded to consider her impulses and odd type of coquetry. After their splitting, both consented to meet again in Geneva, Italy. When Winterbourne first showed up in Geneva, he got updates on Miss Miller's most recent capers from his entirely respectable auntie. During her stay in Geneva, her noble man culture was made out of ?about six of the ordinary Roman fortune trackers.? As an American young lady, she remained consistent with her own qualities in spite of the fact that she was in an outside land. Daisy Miller was unconscious of the social structure that relies upon sexual orientation and class persecution and she built up a notoriety for herself that would ruin her associations with upper society. By saving her American character, the discussion of Miss Miller's coyness and unladylike conduct spread all through Geneva and soon her notoriety had become greater than even she could deal with. One night while Miss Miller was with the organization of Winterbourne and Mrs. Walker, a dear companion, she educated her sidekicks that she would leave presently to meet Giovanni, an Italian fortune tracker and ?close companion,? for a walk. Winterbourne, realizing his protest would do nothing but bad, offered to in any event walk her to her companion so she would not be separated from everyone else so late around evening time. After perceiving that Giovanni was of terrible character, he scrutinized her buddy and promptly expressed that he would stay with her for the night. She answered truly, ?I have never permitted a man of honor to direct to me or meddle with anything I do.? Winterbourne again cautioned her of Giovanni and said that he was not the correct kind of man for her. She paid no notice to his recommendation and immediately joined Giovanni. Now, Mrs. Walker could take no more. She met the gathering in her carriage and asked Miss Miller to return home with her for purpose of her notoriety. In the wake of saying that she was mature enough to be out around evening time, Mrs. Walker gruffly expressed that Miss Miller was additionally mature enough to be discussed. Surprised, Miss Miller reacted by saying that, ?if this is ill-advised, than I am all inappropriate and you should surrender me.? With that, Mrs. Walker and Winterbourne left their uninformed companion to her friend Giovanni. Now, Miss Miller's dismissal toward her notoriety and her own prosperity cost her the regard of her own companions. The shock Miss Miller got from her companions was a severe shock that made her go up against the truth of her circumstance. She before long went to her last gathering at Mrs. Walker's home and was left without anyone else. Just because, Winterbourne saw that she was humiliated and embarrassed. Another occurrence happened one pre-fall night when Winterbourne meandered into a Roman Coliseum and shockingly discovered Miss Miller and Giovanni. He begged Miss Miller, not out of benevolence, yet just for her wellbeing, to get back because of a paranoid fear of getting

Friday, August 21, 2020

Catching On: Choosing One Way of Using Causal Analysis Essay Samples

Catching On: Choosing One Way of Using Causal Analysis Essay SamplesThe majority of causal analysis essay samples are written using conversational English, and when your students encounter this kind of essay, they might feel a little intimidated. In fact, sometimes it's not even enough to emphasize that your examples should be taken in context.Instead, you can emphasize the same basic descriptive sentence structures and examples in your own writing. These sorts of explanations are often more useful, and they make students feel like they're really listening to what you're saying rather than simply reading a text. This will also get them to engage with your material rather than simply absorb it passively.One way you can use examples from causal analysis essay samples is to show examples of natural phenomena or theories from various perspectives. For example, a large group of people can analyze a storm in the same way that a single individual can. It all comes down to perspective, which will serve to illustrate the point that nature may have a cause - as opposed to an effect.You can do this by starting with the simplest example possible. For example, a mosquito may lay eggs that hatch into maggots, and the problem can be solved by feeding the eggs. As you move on, you can mention the larger body of your points and ask your students to describe their own thoughts about the topic at hand. Of course, you don't want to get too far into it because that might confuse your students.However, if you're a visual learner, then this may work well for you. An example on how the simplest example can be generalized to fit a wider context can be very useful to students. But if you go overboard and try to force students to understand the basic logic of each point, you may be just putting your students off and distracting them. Let them be more self-directed, and they'll take in your material much more easily.But why should you complicate a dramatic situation? The answer to that is that some people need to hear logic put together. If a story isn't difficult enough to make logical sense of, it can make it difficult for your students to understand and process. And while they're being distracted by other students, you're trying to make sense of the lesson you're teaching.You don't want to make them wait, though, so if your students start to make additional problems, you should simply move on to another lesson. That way, they won't be paying attention to the larger situation in the class. And what better way to teach than with the resources you already have?The best thing you can do when reading causal analysis essay samples is to make sure they make sense, and to make sure they're presenting the material in the best way possible. You can make your job a lot easier with some creative thinking and a focus on practical knowledge.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Essay about Latchkey Children - 1035 Words

Latchkey Children Latchkey Children are children who return from school to an empty house because their parents are away working or their just left alone at home with little or no parental supervision. In todays society this is becoming more and more common due to the fact that in most households, both parents carry a job or career to support the family. Other names for Latchkey Children are children in self-care, children of working parents, unsupervised children etc. Leaving a child unsupervised after school can pose both positive and negative effects. According to the article Ranks of latchkey kids approach 7 million many children arent supervised by anybody. This is due to the fact†¦show more content†¦Children spend less than 20 percent of their time in school. What happens in the other 80 percent of their time is crucial to their development. According to the article (After-School Programs Alter Lives of At-Risk youth pg.1) When left unsupervised, children are most at risk between 3 and 6 pm. It is during these hours that children come home to an empty unsupervised home. According to the article, it is during these hours that children are more likely to commit or be victimized by crime; to smoke, drink or use drugs; to engage in premature sexual activity; or to get involved in gang-related activities. With the rising and unaffordable costs of after school day care, its obvious that the number of children being put at risk is on the rise, especially children who come from low socioeconomic households. Simply put, we need more funding for after school day care programs to ensure that the number of at risk children decreases. It is what these children do after school between the hours of 3 to 6 pm that affects their educational as well as their societal outcomes. According to this article Children who participate in after school programs show improvement in standardized test scores and decreased a bsenteeism and tardiness. We need to reach the children who come from low socioeconomic households and ensure them a fair chance in participating in after-school day care programs. From reading this article it is clear that childrenShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Making Your Child A Latchkey Kid1343 Words   |  6 PagesEach day children across America go to school; education not only being a requirement, but a necessity of life. Yet when the school bell rings every afternoon, over four million children ages five to fourteen go home to no parental guardian (Olsen). These children are called latchkey kids; terminology first used in the 1940s during World War II, when women had to work because their husbands were deployed. Latchkey meaning the key to the house is often strung around the child’s neck or hidden underRead MoreProtective Environment And A Nurturing Environment982 Words   |  4 Pagesparent provide for an infant child? The characteristics of a nurturing parent are they are. Factors that impede a nurturing environment include latchkey children, marital strife and divorce, substance abuse, HIV/AIDS, and death. These factors can be damaging to children because these factors can greatly affect the mental state and alter their development into adulthood. Parents must bathed, change diapers, dress and feed their infant child because theirRead More3.08 Review and Critical Thinking815 Words   |  4 Pagesexplicit way. Neglect is when parents fail to take care of their child’s basic physical, emotional, disciplinary, and educational needs. Shaken Baby Syndrome is a form of child abuse, which occurs with startling frequency toward babies and very small children. SBS results when an infant is violently shaken, causing fractured bones, internal organ injuries, and severe brain damage. 2. What types of physical care must a parent provide an infant child? When a child is a newborn, a parent must batheRead More3.08 Critical Thinking Questions . Parenting Skills Essay examples879 Words   |  4 Pagesattentive to their childs physical and emotional needs , being able to trust their family to care for them and to love them. 2. How do children’s needs change as they grow through development stages from infancy to teen years? How do special needs children differ? During the infancy years a child will need you to do absolute everything for them. During toddler years a child may be able to communicate and do task like feeding themselves with a bottle , spoon , and cup . During elementary years a childRead MoreJob Satisfaction Is Essential For A Positive Effect On Children1258 Words   |  6 Pageshave always struggled to keep and hold onto employees. A major goal in preschool/daycare centers is hiring well balanced employees with education, care and compassion for young children. Enthusiasm, caring, motivation, and attention to detail are normal requirements in their everyday jobs for the benefit of the children and the employers. Job satisfaction and trying to keep employees highly motivated and productive is a key factor in preschool/daycare centers. In a preschool/daycare setting,Read MoreJuvenile Delinquency Is Defined As A Legal Term1435 Words   |  6 Pagesadult-committed crime and â€Å"age-related† crime. Adult related crimes are crimes that an adult would be punished for had they committed the crime. Adult related crimes are considered more serious and may include burglary, drug use, and murder. Sometimes children may get charged as adults depending on the severity of the crime. The only difference is the child does not receive a trial; they instead receive adjudication and later disposition and sentencing. Age-related crimes are acts that would not be punishableRead MoreThe Generational Differences Between The Generation X And Generation Y1661 Words   |  7 Pagesand abortion being legalized in 1973. This led to the generations low population numbers, approximately 46 million. Divorc e rates doubled in the 1960s-70s, and mothers were forced to work. That was the beginning of the nick name â€Å"latchkey kids†. This term referred to children coming home from school and no one being home. They were independent enough to feed and entertain themselves until the rest of the family arrived home, however they were bored and lonely. The lack of supervision during childhoodRead MoreGenerational Conflict in the Workplace1526 Words   |  7 Pagesinclude a little background on each of the two main generations involved. Generation X consists of approximately 55 million workers in North America. They were born between 1965 and 1980. It is generally accepted that Gen Xers are called the â€Å"latchkey children.† They are self-reliant and independent. They generally enjoy a casual and friendly work environment. They separate friends from family, and seek a balance between work life and family. Generation Y consists of approximately 80 million workersRead MoreMedia Needs to Have Self-Regulation Essay647 Words   |  3 Pagesthat there are some very successful regulations because there are rating on movies and video games, and the fact that there is a lack of mature content on television channels labeled â€Å"children’s† channels and during times when there may be more children watching other â€Å"regular† channels. However, even these are only transient successes. It is possible to release unrated movies, the only reason there are not so many is that very few cinemas will show unrated films. Furthermore, there is still matureRead MoreWorking With Families At Home And At School848 Words   |  4 Pageswith families is a privilege to this future school counselor. Family systems theory is the work of Ackerman (1959), Jackson (1965), Minuchin (1974), and Bowen (1978), (Newman Newman, 2015). This theory is use to learn and to understand problems of ch ildren at home and at school. This theory can be used to help Juan talk about his problem with his parents. This counselor will provide the opportunity to have a family session with Juan’s family. Juan is the only child; both parents are present in his

Friday, May 15, 2020

Stream of Consciousness Writing

Stream of consciousness is a  narrative technique that gives the impression of a mind at work, jumping from one observation, sensation, or reflection to the next seamlessly and often without conventional  transitions. Although stream of consciousness is commonly associated with the work of novelists including James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, and William Faulkner, the method has also been used effectively by writers of creative nonfiction  and is often referred to as freewriting. The metaphor of the stream of consciousness was coined by American philosopher and psychologist William James in The Principles of Psychology in 1890 and has been perpetuated to this day in the modern literature and psychology fields. Urgency and Presence in Stream of Consciousness Often used by creative writing teachers as a means to get the creative juices flowing for their students at the beginning of classes, a stream of consciousness writing exercises often ground writers in the presentness, the importance of a given subject or discourse. In creative fiction, a stream of consciousness may be used by a narrator to convey the thoughts or feelings going on in the head of a character, a writers trick to convince the audience of the authenticity of thoughts he or she is attempting to write into the story. These internal monologues of sorts read and transfer thought more organically to the audience, providing a direct look into the inner workings of a characters mental landscape. The characteristic lack of punctuation and transitions only furthers this idea of a free-flowing prose wherein the reader and speaker alike jump from one topic to the next, much like a person would when daydreaming about a given topic—one might start with talking about fantasy films but end up discussing the finer points of medieval costuming, for instance, seamlessly and without transition. A Notable Examplein Tom Wolfes Nonfiction Work Stream of consciousness writing isnt only for fictional works—Tom Wolfes memoir Electric  Kool-Aid Acid Test is packed full of beautiful, eloquent stream of consciousness which provides insight into the protagonists journey and story. Take this excerpt for example:   —Kesey has Cornel Wilde Running Jacket ready hanging on the wall, a jungle-jim corduroy jacket stashed with fishing line, a knife, money, DDT, tablet, ball-points, flashlight, and grass. Has it timed by test runs that he can be out the window, down through a hole in the roof below, down a drain pipe, over a wall and into thickest jungle in 45 seconds—well, only 35 seconds left, but head start is all that’s needed, with the element of surprise. Besides, its so fascinating to be here in subastral projection with the cool rushing dex, synched into  their  minds and his own, in all its surges and tributaries and convolutions, turning it this way and that and rationalizing the situation for the 100th time in split seconds, such as: If they have that many men already here, the phony telephone men, the cops in the tan car, the cops in the Volkswagen, what are they waiting for? why havent they crashed right in through the rotten doors of this Rat building-- In The Mythopoeic Reality: The Postwar American Nonfiction Novel, Masud Zavarzadeh explains Wolfes above use of stream of consciousness as the dominating narrative choice for this section of the nonfiction novel, saying the technical rationale for the use of such narrational devices in the nonfiction novel is the treatment of the subjectivity of the situation or person portrayed, as distinguished from the projected subjectivity (empathy) of the fictive novelist.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Capital Budgeting Essay - 1391 Words

Capital Budgeting Essay (Derived from Chapter 17: Long-Term Investment Analysis) Title: The Lorie-Savage Problem BUS 505 – Multinational Economics of Technology Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction – Lorie-Savage Problem 3 1.1 Thesis Statement 3 2.0 Supporting Research 4 3.0 Conclusions and Recommendations 6 References 7 1.0 Introduction – Lorie-Savage Problem The Lorie-Savage problem is a problem introduced in 1955 that addresses the issue in how to allocate capital (or resources) among competing investment opportunities with constraints on the available resources. (Lorie amp; Savage, 1955, p. 229) In defining this problem, Lorie-Savage structures it by outlining three separate scenarios: 1) Given the cost of†¦show more content†¦(Lorie amp; Savage, 1955, p. 234) Turns out this is an Integer Programming optimization problem as it has identified constraints with the end output being to either accept an investment (using the integer 1), or decline (using the integer 0). Since the Lagrange Multipliers are real values, this is more specifically classified as a Mixed Integer Programming problem. (Trick, 1998) Their research proved to be revolutionary as this strayed from the traditional accepted method in using IRR, and this research has evolved since. One example of this is demonstrated where Seymour Kaplan introduced the concept of applying the Generalized Lagrange Multiplier (G.L.M.) method with Integer Programming, using the Lorie-Savage problem as a basis for comparison, that found favorable results in the effectiveness of G.L.M. in producing optimal solutions using NPV to make investment decisions. (Kaplan, 1966, p. 1136) Building on this research was th e introduction of using genetic algorithms (GA) to solve capital budgeting problems in allowing financial analysts to find optimal investment combinations for various situations, such as the multiple tax-structures a company may encounter. (Berry amp; Manongga, 2006, p. 96) Expanding on the GA implementation was research conducted that incorporated fuzzy set theory on problems when investment parameters contained scant or vague information and therefore had great uncertainty. Xiaoxia Huang created a new meanShow MoreRelatedCapital Budgeting Scenarios Essay example886 Words   |  4 PagesCapital Budgeting Scenarios Shannan Coleman FIN/486 September 23, 2012 Sal Sadiq Capital Budgeting Scenarios Capital Budgeting: Proposal A – New Factory Proposal A is to build a new factory to decide if this would be a feasible move for the company they need to perform a net present value analysis. To do this they will only need to look at the incremental cash flows, which are as follows: 1. Initial investment of $10 million that will be the cost to build the new factory. 2. SalesRead MoreCapital Budgeting in Galaxy Science Centre Essay1403 Words   |  6 PagesCapital Budgeting in Galaxy Science Centre Capital Budgeting encourages managers to accurately manage and control their capital expenditure. By providing powerful reporting and analysis, managers can take control of their budgets. The purpose of this paper is to investigate capital budgeting decision under Galaxy Science Centre (GSC), which is non-profit organization. The need for such an analysis emerges from the case that only provides general information concerning the impact of capital budgetingRead MoreEssay Capital Budgeting935 Words   |  4 PagesCapital Budgeting The city engineers presented city council members with two projects that require large capital outlays. However, the economic downturn makes implementation of both projects impossible with current budget restraints. Therefore, the city council decided to conduct a cost benefit analysis to determine the most cost effective project. While neither project met all the requirements, data analysis determined that Option B was the best choice. However, city engineers pushed backRead MoreCapital Budgeting Essay2618 Words   |  11 PagesCapital Budgeting Introduction Capital budgeting is the process of evaluating and selecting long-term investments that are consistent with the firms goal of maximizing owner wealth. A firm using capital budgeting, their goal is to see if there fixed income will cover itself for profit. Fixed incomes are things such as land, plant and equipment. When a firm using a machine to produce its good or service. They most of the time what the machine to produce the amount that they paid for the machineRead MoreCapital Budgeting Essay697 Words   |  3 PagesStrident Marks can utilize the capital budgeting to evaluate their proposed long-term investments. Once we have identified a list of potential investment projects, the next step in the process will be to estimate the expected cash flows and risk of each project. Based on these estimates, we can evaluate each project and decide which set of projects are the best for Strident Marks to undertake. The primary decision methods used to evaluate the projects will be payback, net present value, and internalRead MoreCapital Budgeting Case Essay1167 Words   |  5 Pages1 Capital Budgeting Problem MBA612, Dr. Schieuer By: Dean Anderson, Terry Sutton, Sawan Tamang, Karuna Mishra, 2 Capital Budgeting Process: Capital budgeting (or investment appraisal) is the planning process used to determine whether an organizations long term investments such as new machinery, replacement machinery, new plants, new products, and research development projects are worth pursuing. It is budget for major capital, or investment, expenditures (SullivanRead MoreEssay on Capital Budgeting Summary2017 Words   |  9 PagesCapital budgeting is the process of evaluating a company’s potential investments and deciding which ones to accept. A company’s market value added (MVA) is the sum of all its projects’ net present values (NPVs). Basically, one can calculate the free cash flows (FCFs) for a project in much the same way as for a firm. When a project’s free cash flows are discounted at the appropriate risk-adjusted rate, the result is the project’s value. One difference between valuing a firm and a project is theRead MoreThe Cross Boarder Mov ements Of Good, Services And Resources1480 Words   |  6 Pages Question 1. In a short essay discuss why government have been liberalizing cross-boarder movements of good, services and resources. As we learned in the course international business is growing more and more for every year. Today 25% of all business is international business. This has almost forced countries and their governments to change the laws and regulations around cross boarder movement of goods, services and resources. As access is easier now for everyday costumers to international goodRead MoreCash Flow Estimation And Capital Budgeting933 Words   |  4 Pages Trident University Beverley Lionel Module 3 Case: Cash Flow Estimation and Capital Budgeting FIN 501 Strategic Corporate Finance Dr. Edward Kaplan May 21, 2017 ABC Golf Equipment Corporation Memo to the CEO, Mr. Hillbrandt To: The CEO, Mr. Hillbrandt From: Chief Financial Officer Date: May 21, 2017 Subject: Estimating Project Cash Flows Introduction If the manufacturer plans on using debt to finance the project, should the estimated project cash flows be changed to reflect theseRead MoreEssay about Capital Budgeting483 Words   |  2 Pagesoperating budget, and (d) the capital budgeting (Buchbinder Shanks,2007,p.226). Capital budgeting is the most expensive in contrast to the other budgets because the operating costs goes beyond the traditional calendar or annual budget. The capital budget is the most challenging for CEO’s to use as a control mechanisms. The challenge is to due to scare resources and the difficulty in forecasting funding requirements. According to Buchbinder and Shanks (2007), Capital Budgeting may be defined as the

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Global Business Marketing Opportunities

Question: Discuss about the Global Business Marketing Opportunities. Answer: Introduction: In the present scenario, Asian markets are witnessing higher rate of economic growth, which is creating a space for new investment opportunities within the markets therein. The well-recognised Asian companies such as Proctor Gamble as well as Nestle have started expanding their units in the international market since the year 2000. India and China has a great potential for investment pertaining to the MNCs of the western nations. These facts reflect that the Asian countries tend a good business relation among themselves as well as with that of the foreign countries (Kazuo, 2012). Taiwan is also emerges as one of the most successful regions of Asia from the economic perspectives (Lorencowicz Lorencowicz, 2013). The rates of economic growth in East and South Eastern Asia are quite strong, and have also witnessed a reduction in the level of poverty, which tends to bring about a rise in income, thereby leading to rise in consumption. It will lead to increase in the opportunities to set new industrial ventures, in turn facing the rising consumption demand. However, there have not been enough growth of opportunities for job in these regions, and so companies can create new job opportunities by opening their units therein. This also focuses on the need of setting new industries that will lead to emergence of BPOs along with the other industries maintaining a cordial and profitable relation among themselves (Rahman, Khatri Brunner, 2012). In the last 20 years, most of the nations of Asia had attained will grow at a range of 4-6 % for the next two decades (Farrington, 2007: 6). The emerging level of income of the people tends to create new demand for the products and services in the Asian nations. Asia has a countable number of developing nations with low level of research and development (R D) facilities. These bring about the need of technology transfer with complete assistance of Foreign Direct Investment. This indeed leads to the increased productivity and growth of the Asian economy in the global genre. This implies that western companies are having an opportunity to open units in Asia and enhancing their relationship therein (Knivilla, n.d.). The micro economic policies of Asian nations have helped a lot to keep the prices at a stable condition and have thereby increased the private consumption expenditure. This has necessitated the need for investment in the fields of education, durables, health care services an d automobiles. The FDI inflows are further attracted by the macroeconomic fundamentals of Asian nations. Nations such as Germany and UK are also found having a strong strategic alliance with Asian nations such as China (Xinhua, 2015). The educated work force of USA and presence of technological capabilities can be regarded as one of the benefits of the business houses therein. However, the problem of wage inequality coupled with social immobility can cause tension for smooth running of business in USA (Naranjo, 2014). The complex natures of institutional, legal and cultural structures are supposed to pose threat to the investors of USA, despite the presence of low entry barriers. Thus the relationship of business houses with USA seems to be somewhat troublesome. CNOOC, one of the giant energy companies of China withdrew the bid for the US Company Unocal after getting a threat of congressional scrutiny. The US governments decision regarding any business deal is also largely influence d by public opinion. This deviates away the tendency of investors to invest in USA (Moran, 2012). The nations belonging to the European Union (EU) have lost the potential of FDI to less than 20%.The sovereign debt crisis have made it impossible for many European nations to attract new investments ( Vetter, 2014). Clearly, it can be revealed that Asia is a market for new opportunities, while Northern America and Europe have reached a level of saturation that is forcing investors to invest in Asian nations and build a strong base there. The companies are trying to have a first mover advantage for investments in Asia, supported by the governments. The presence of new business opportunities has increased the business alliances of companies with Asia but the same does not apply to USA and Europe. Significance of International Strategy The Asian nations are showing a chance of great opportunities for companies to establish long-term business relations. To establish a firm base the companies of western nations have to adequately frame effective and competitive marketing strategies for surviving into the international market. They also have to develop strategies that can help in distinguishing their companies from their rivals. The need arises to understand the economic features of a particular nation such as income and psychographics among others to know the effective penetration strategies, which in turn benefits the countries in developing their uniqueness within the global scenario. The same applies to the case of the markets of Northern America and European Union (Doole Lowe, 2008: 34). Networks and Customer Relationship Management Networks play a very vital role in international marketing. Selection of proper networks assists in making the products of a business concern reach the consumers quickly. Selection of the proper channels of distributors, retailers, advertising agencies, call centres is some of the most effective means of a good network (Coviello Munro, 1995: 50). Customer relationship management (CRM) is largely connected with the maintenance of a cordial relationship with the customer that helps the organisations in creating a loyal customer base of their own. It also leads to the initiation of word-of-mouth or buzz-marketing and attracts new customers without any expenditure on promotion or advertisement (Chen Popovic, 2003: 672). The role of CRM also lies in the hands of the partners of the supply chain network. Efficiency of retailers, distributors, advertising agencies play a vital role in the effective penetration into a foreign market. The distributors of the existing market have a better knowledge of placing a product within the target market Besides, they are even aware of the techniques that needs to be implemented for dealing directly with the customers and for convincing them to purchase their products/services (Chen Popovic, 2003: 679 ). Considering the case of after-sales service, it can be said that opening a service centre o perated by the parent foreign company will be costlier than as compared to the scenario if it would have been operated by an agent. It will be much tedious for a new foreign company to do various activities at a time. The advertising agencies can help the companies to make effective advertisements, without violating the cultural norms and traditions of the new market in which the company will be expanding (Croxton, Dustugue Lambert, 2001: 14). Most of the companies now outsource the non-core activities of advertising, distribution and logistics to the efficient companies all round the world. The customer care division of companies is also maintained by outsourcing companies that deal with the grievances of customers by means of telephonic conversations or e- mail chats. Local distributors and retailers at times provide effective pricing and promotional strategies to the foreign companies. Thus, partnership with a proper channel partner bears a vital importance in effective CRM pert aining to international marketing. The focus has now been on implementing e-partnering strategies with the network members due to the increasing importance of e-CRM (Association of Modern Technologies Professionals, 2016). One classic example of network partnering is that of Dell with the International Software Distribution Company. It has enabled Dell to increase its market immensely in South Eastern Europe (American Chamber of Commerce in Romania, 2016). The key areas for effective CRM in the overseas market includes finding efficient supply chain management by means of local partnerships. The companies need to select the right dealers, distribution and channel network that will be appropriate for making the product available to the end users. The company has to decide whether to sell the product by a zero, two, three or four level channel. This depends on the nature of the goods and size of the market. Renowned and efficient dealers can efficiently make a new product reach the end users within a very short span of time. In case of overseas market the case of after-sales service should also be implemented to keep the customers satisfied. The next key area in case of overseas CRM is pricing policy and advertising. The pricing should be done at par with the purchasing power of the people. The selection of proper marketing channel will help in proper promotion of the product. In order to sustain in the market, the company has to underst and the culture, beliefs and traditions of the local people and design the product as per their needs. An effective market research is the first thing that a company must do before entering a market. It must analyse whether the demand for its products exists within the market or not, and whether the political, legal, social and ecological factors are in favour of the business and its product (Tradestart, n.d.). Challenges in Internationalisation in UK Faced by Calleija Calleija is one of the most reputed jewellery companies in the global market owing to its origin in Australia and founded by John Calleija. It produces unimaginable jewellery that reveals the excellent craftsmanship of the company (NewsLifeMedia, 2016). Aston Martin is a leading automobile manufacturer of Britain that was founded in the year 1914 by Lionel Martin, though its actual origin traces back to 1913 (Aston Martin, 2016). Calleija had made a partnership with Aston Martin to make outstanding collections of jewellery. The craftsmanship of the new partnership was supposed to be based on the One-77 car of Aston Martin. As the name suggests the car is made available only in 77 pieces and so the new pieces of jewellery is also made available in 77 pieces. The design of the jewellery is based on the extraordinary designs of the One -77 car, and these pieces were designed by John Calleija and the guidance was provided by the director of Aston Martin Marek Reichman that led to the des ign of a new gemstone called ASTAR (Calleija, 2016). However, despite such extraordinary efforts put on Calleija, it has faced problems in getting an effective hold of the market in United Kingdom. Callejia had also developed its market in UAE along with a physical store at the Old Bond Street of Mayfair in London. Online marketing techniques assisted by the traditional ways enabled Callejia to maintain a good relationship with its customers, and bring about an increment in their sale. However, the rules, regulations and laws of the nation were largely different from that of Australia. Callejia had to find out what was permissible as per the norms of UK. There was a system of red tape prevalent in the UK and it was difficult for the jewellery company to make a proper network (Fletcher Crawford, 2013). In response to this Callejia made contact with Austrade, which is an Australian government association to help the exporters of the nation help develop market outside. This body gave contacts of well known lawyers, business developers an d accountants within the boundaries of the UK. The company faced problems in creating awareness of its brand, and therefore it was believed that marketing is an ever-ending process that completed half of the business. It made contacts with a PR company that assisted Callejia in making ads on magazines, brochures and also on organized PR campaigns. Despite this the competition in the UK jewellery market appeared as hurdle to Callejia, and most of the jewellers had their shop at Old Bond Street, some as old as 150 years (Fletcher Crawford, 2013). One fact is that people of diverse cultures visited London, and some preferred to purchase British products as a sign of heritage and others preferred to buy products of multiple origins. In this way, the large nature of Londons market appeared as complex and challenging to Callejia. The presence of immense number of jewellery companies had made the market of London reach a saturation level. Callejia tried to make brand awareness of its products especially the pink diamonds. Again, the company came to know about the country of origin effect that was prevalent in UK at that time. People of UK preferred only those products, which were produced in UK. The people of UK had a disliking for Australian jewellery and technology (Fletcher Crawford, 2013: 666).Callejia tried to overcome this hurdle by stressing on the ethical manner by which the sourcing of gems are done, and used PR campaigns such as print media advertisements to overcome the issue and make brand awareness (Fletcher Crawfor d, 2013: 667). Country of Origin Effect Country of origin effect is connected with the perception that customers have after knowing the country, where a particular product has been made. Customers may develop a positive liking for a product after hearing about the country of origin or may develop a disliking for the same perspective. The concepts have gained popularity with the advent of globalisation over a period of 30 years. The emergence of the concept of country of origin effect can be traced back to World War I. The defeated nations such as Germany were forced to add a symbol of country of origin (COO) on the products that were made there (Rezvani, Dehkordi, Rahman, Fouladivanda, Habibi Eghtebasi, 2012: 206). The SME jewellery company such as Calleija had to suffer due to this effect. They were not accepted by the people as they preferred only products of British origin. After a hard PR campaign of ethical sourcing of its gems, Calleija was able to create an awareness of its products at least to some extent (Fletche r Crawford, 2013: 667). Figure: Pink Diamonds of Calleija (Source: Calleija, 2016) References American Chamber of Commerce in Romania. (2016) International software distribution, the new authorized dell software distributor for Romania, Bulgaria and the Adriatic Region, [Online], Available: [22 Jul 2016]. Association of Modern Technologies Professionals. 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